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Frank Hurley

This page is dedicated to listing the location of the works created by Frank Hurley, including his photographs, cinematography and diaries, while he was involved with Mawson's Australian Antarctic Expedition (AAE 1911-1914) and British Australian New Zealand Antarctic Research Expedition (BANZARE 1929-1931), and Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (ITAE, 1914-1917). A Bibliography of books written by and about Frank Hurley is also included. Sources for much of the information provided here include the recent biography of Frank Hurley written by Alasdair McGregor ('Frank Hurley - A photographer's life,' see below for details), and members of staff and websites of the various institutions, A special mention should be made of Shane Murphy, who has re-established his informative websites as follows:
http://www.frankhurley.org and

My sincere thanks to you all. Further sources of information can be found in the list of publications below.


Within Australia

National Gallery of Australia, Canberra (http://www.nga.gov.au)
The National Gallery of Australia has a small collection of Hurley's photographs, which can be found by carrying out a collection search at: http://cs.nga.gov.au

At the time of writing only three of the photographs were viewable online.

National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne (http://ww w.ngv.vic.gov.au)
The National Gallery of Victoria holds an original presentation folio (the 'Owen Folder') of twelve 'Endurance' and 'Elephant Island' silver gelatin photographs, all of which are inscribed by Shackleton. The Gallery also holds a large framed picture by Hurley of an iceberg from Mawson's AAE as well as five photographs from the First World War. While the photographs are not online at the Gallery's website, they can all be viewed in the Gallery's viewing room by appointment. I have viewed the photographs and found it a most memorable experience. The viewing room is open Tuesday - Thursday from 1.00 - 4.00 pm. Contact Susan van Wyk, Curator of Photography at: susan.vanwyk@ngv.vic.gov.au

National Library of Australia, Canberra (http://www.nla.gov.au)
PictureAustralia: PictureAustralia is a portal to many significant online pictorial collections. PictureAustralia doesn't actually hold any images it just provides access to them via their interface. For a good description of the Picture Australia service go to the 'About us' page: http://www.pictu rea ustralia.org/about.html

Enquiries to PictureAustralia can be made by email to: pictaust@nla.gov.au

If you perform a simple search for Frank Hurley or just Hurley at Picture Australia you will find 12981 or 13401 images respectively, which is the total number of images by Frank Hurley to which they have access. To search for Hurley images from a particular expedition use the Advanced Search, e.g., if you use Frank Hurley and B.A.N.Z. Antarctic Research Expedition you will find 230 images. To search for images from this expedition specific to the Discovery (the name of the ship used on the two expeditions) use Hurley and Discovery, and 84 images will be found. There are numerous and terms you can use with Frank Hurley, a few examples include: Endurance (52 images); Heard Island (22); Mawson (133); National Library of Australia (11706); Shackleton (130); State Library of NSW (631); State Library of South Australia (3); State Library of Tasmania (3); State Library of Victoria (196).

South Australian Museum, Adelaide (http://www.samuseum.sa.gov.au)
The Mawson Antarctic Collection is held at the South Australian Museum and includes many vintage Hurley prints, negatives and stereoscopic pairs from the Australian Antarctic Expedition (AAE) and the British, Australian, New Zealand Research Expedition (BANZARE). All Hurley's 10 surviving Lumiere autochrome colour plates are housed here. Little of Hurley's material is accessible on the Museum's website. However, there is an online gallery entitled "In the footsteps of Mawson" which provides information about the BAE 1907-09, AAE 1911-1914 and BANZARE 1929-1931. ( http://www.mawson.sa.gov.au/ie.htm)

State Library of NSW (Mitchell Library), Sydney (http://www.sl.nsw.gov.au)
The photographs of Frank Hurley held by the Mitchell Library can be accessed using PICMAN, the library's catalogue of pictures and manuscripts: http://www.sl.nsw.gov.au/picman

A basic search using Frank Hurley as the keywords results in 649 records, most of which are pictures. More specific (advanced) searches can be made, e.g., if you select the collection entitled Australasian Antarctic Expedition 1911-1914, with Hurley as the creator, 483 records are found out of a total of 2187 records for the entire expedition.

Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart ( http://www.tmag.tas.gov.au)
A new permanent exhibition entitled Islands to Ice: The great Southern Ocean and Antarctica, opened at the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery on 7 March 2006. One of the highlights of the exhibition is a 3D theatrette that gives viewers the feeling that they are standing inside photographs taken by Frank Hurley during Mawson's 1911-14 Expedition. The images are part of a larger, rarely seen collection taken by Hurley using a stereoscopic camera. The original stereoscopic images are part of the Mawson Antarctic Collection housed at the South Australian Museum (see above).

Other Australian Institutions to hold Hurley material include the Australian War Memorial (First and Second World Wars, see under cinematography below) and the Australian Museum (Torres Strait and Papua Expeditions).


Dulwich College, London, UK (James Caird Society)
Dulwich College has two albums of Frank Hurley's photographs. It is also the home of the James Caird, the boat in which Sir Ernest Shackleton and five others made their epic journey from Elephant Island to South Georgia in 1916.

In the news section of the James Caird Society website there is information about Frank Hurley: http://www.jamescairdsociety.com/latest.php and this leads you to a site entitled Hurley Photos at Kodak, which is well worth a visit as it includes many of his photographs and a short biography: http://www.kodak.com/US/en/corp/features/endurance

Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand
(http://www.n atlib.govt.nz)
The Alexander Turnbull Library holds a collection of prints from Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (ITAE, 1914-1917). The majority of the prints are part of the collection of Thomas Orde Hans Lees (1877-1958), which comprises 73 b&w original photographic prints. These items were donated to the Library in 1991 (PAColl-2094 and PAColl-6115). There are also prints that are part of the J. Pontefract collection (PAColl-5753). To find details of the holdings of Frank Hurley's pictures go to: http://tapuhi.natlib.govt.nz and use Hurley as the Search term.

The majority of the Hurley's images that the Library holds are available on the Timeframes website (to be found at http://tim eframes.natlib.govt.nz). If you type Hurley into the search box this will lead you to the images.

Royal Geographical Society, London, UK (http://ww w.rgs.org)
The RGS holds what are considerd to be Hurley's original negatives and lantern slides from the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition. In the PictureLibrary the RGS has a collection of 1225 images from Antarctica, which can be viewed in their entirety at: http://imag es.rgs.org by selecting Antarctica under Regional Categories. Specific expeditions can then be selected, e.g., Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition 1914-1917, where there are 162 images most of which attributed to Frank Hurley. Clicking on an individual image brings up the details about the image plus a slightly enlarged image superimposed with the initials RGS! Also, you can download each image, but the RGS imprint remains.

Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge, UK (http://www.spri. cam.ac.uk)
The SPRI holds Hurley's lantern slides and two albums from the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, 1914-16 (Endurance), including the "Green Album" that he maintained on the Expedition. Small images of the photographs can be found by going to: http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/library/pictures/expeditions/endurance where there are 15 pages each containing about 20 images. Unlike those viewable at PictureAustralia and PICMAN larger images of each picture are not available.

This new section at SPRI contains images from some other expeditions and will be expanded as time allows. To see what is available go to: http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/libra ry/pictures/expeditions


Within Australia

Australian War Memorial (http://www.awm.gov.au)
The Australian War Memorial holds many of Hurley's war films as well as other ephemera. A simple search for Frank Hurley shows that there are 1183 records including 77 films and 1099 photographs. It is possible to enlarge the photographs but permission must be sought to reproduce the images.

National Film and Sound Archive (formerly ScreenSound Australia), Canberra. (http://www.nfsa.gov.au)
The National Film and Sound Archive holds the most comprehensive collection of Hurley films and ephemera, including the following: "Home of the Blizzard", film from Mawson's Australian Antarctic Expedition (1911-1914); "Siege of the South", film from the BANZAR Expedition (1929-1931); and "Antarctic Pioneers", a 1962 documentary, which includes the last interview with Frank Hurley interspersed with footage filmed from early pioneering days in Antarctica up until 1954. Sadly, Hurley died a week after this documentary was completed.

You can search the Archive for all of Hurley's material using an Easy Search or an Advanced Search here.

Once you have found the Titles that you would like to view you can submit a Reference Enquiry Form with details of the Title and Title number. Provided the Access/Preview Items column is marked with a Yes for the item/s then your nearest National Film and Sound Archive Access Centre will contact you and provide contact details so that you can make arrangements to go and view the Titles. For example, in Melbourne the Access Centre is at 144 Moray Street, South Melbourne and the contact phone number is 03-9685 5811.

Hurley films available commercially in DVD format from the National Film and Sound Archive include " South - Sir Ernest Shackleton's heroic expedition to the Antarctic" (Umbrella entertainment). This is taken from the original 1919 film produced by Shackleton and Hurley, which is held by the British Film Institute. The DVD version supesedes the earlier VHS version and now includes a commentary by Film Historian Luke McKernan. In addition the DVD contains footage from other cinematographers of Shackleton's funeral in South Georgia, Southward on the Quest, the rescue of the Ross Sea Party (with commentary by Kelly Tyler) plus additional footage by Hurley from South. A second DVD, "Frank Hurley - The Man who made History", is a stunning documentary, which retraces Hurley's footsteps from the Antarctic, Belgium, Papua New Guinea and Israel to Australia and includes some of the most enduring images of the first century of the photographic age. An earlier video narrated by Leo McKern entitled "Snow, Sand & Savages - The Life of Frank Hurley" is no longer available. However, it was screened recently on the Ovation channel.


British Film Institute, (http://www.bfi.org.uk)
The British Film Institute collection holds a number of Hurley's films. A search of the BFI Film and TV database using HURLEY, Frank as keywords leads to information about various films in which he was involved. Also, a search of the BFI DVD and Video catalogue provides more information about the commercially available DVD entitled "South" (mentioned above), Shackleton and Hurley.


National Library of Australia, Canberra (http://www.nla.gov.au)
A Guide to the Papers of Frank Hurley held at the National Library can be found at: http://nla.g ov. au/nla.ms-ms883

The series list and descriptions of Hurley's papers are as follows:

Series 1 Diaries, 1912-1961 comprising Items 1-28, listed separately and all digitized.
Series 2 Press cuttings comprising Items 29-36, cumulative listing and not digitized.
Series 3 Typescripts of publications, radio talks and film scripts, 1927-1940 comprising Items 37-61, listed separately and not digitized.
Series 4 Personal papers, 1920-1947 comprising Items 62-71, 71a-71f, 72-75, 75a-75b, 76-83, listed separately and not digitized except for Item 74 (see below).

An Overview of the collection and a Biographical note is also provided.

In Series 1, Diaries, 1912-1961, 28 Items are listed, all of which appear to be available for viewing on line. Some of the diaries are typed but most are handwritten (Autograph manuscripts). In some of the diaries photographs are included, e.g., Items 16 and 17, which deal with the BANZ Antarctic Research Expedition (1929-1931). A further diary, Item 74, which can also be viewed, is to be found in Series 4.

State Library of NSW (Mitchell Library), Sydney (http://www.sl.nsw.gov.au)
A general idea about the record of manuscripts of Frank Hurley held by the Mitchell Library can be ascertained using PICMAN, the library's catalogue of pictures and manuscripts. Use Frank Hurley as the search term and search under Manuscripts records only at: http://www.s l.nsw.gov.au/picman

However, if you want specific details about the items, e.g., the diaries of Frank Hurley, held at the Library it would be as well to make inquiries to the Archivist of the Original Materials Branch at the Mitchell Library. As a result of my own inquiries by email I received the following information:

Frank Hurley diaries kept while a member of the Australasian Antarctic Expedition (1911-1914) and as a member of the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1914-1917), are located at:

[A] MLMSS 389/1, Items 1-2: Sledging diary, 1912-13 (CY 1423, frames 1-191);
[B] MLMSS 389/2, Items 1-7: Diaries, 1914-17 (CY 1423, frames 192-745);
[C] MLMSS 389/3-4: Edited typescript transcripts of the original diaries, 1914-17 (CY 3001, frames 1-535).

These diaries are available on microfilm (indicated by CY numbers, copies available for sale), but none are available online. Further details of other of Hurley's items held by the Library will be sent by mail upon request.


Books by and about Frank Hurley and the Antarctic Expeditions in which he was involved

Alexander, Caroline: Mrs Chippy’s Last Expedition, London: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, ISBN 0747538190, (1998)

Alexander, Caroline: The Endurance - Shackleton’s Legendary Antarctic Expedition, London: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, ISBN 0747546703, (1999)

Ayres, Philip, Mawson - A Life, Melbourne: Miegunyah Press - Melbourne UP, ISBN 0522848117, (1999)

Bickel, Lennard: In Search of Frank Hurley, Melbourne: Macmillan, ISBN 0333299388, (1980)

Bickel, Lennard: This Accursed Land, Melbourne: Sun Books, ISBN 0725103027, (1978)

Bickel, Lennard: Shackleton’s Forgotten Men - The Untold Tragedy of the Endurance Epic. London: Pimlico, ISBN 0712668071, (2001)

Boddington, Jennie: 1910-1916 Antarctic Photographs - Herbert Ponting and Frank Hurley. South Melbourne: Macmillan, ISBN 0333299930, (1979)

Burton, Robert and Venables, Stephen: Shackleton at South Georgia, Robert Burton, ISBN 0954138902, (2001)

Chidsey, Donald Barr: Shackleton’s Voyage, New York: Award Books, (1967)

Cockram, Roy: The Antarctic Chef – The story of the life of Charles Green, Southampton, UK:Roy Cockram, (1999)

Crossley, Louise (ed.): Trial by Ice - The Antarctic Journals of John King Davis, Huntingdon, UK: Bluntisham Books, ISBN 1852970472, (1997)

Davis, John King: High Latitude. Parkville, Victoria: Melbourne University Press (1962)

Dunnett, Harding McGregor: Shackleton’s Boat – The Story of the James Caird, Cranbrook, Kent: Neville and Harding Ltd, ISBN 0948028025, (1996)

Ennis, Helen: Man with a Camera. Canberra: National Library of Australia, ISBN 0642107378 (2002)

Fisher, Margery and James: Shackleton, London: James Barrie Books, (1957)

Fletcher, Harold: Antarctic Days with Mawson – A personal account of the BANZARE of 1929-31, Sydney: Angus & Robertson, ISBN 0207148899 (1984)

Green, Ken and Woehler, Eric (ed): Heard Island: Southern Ocean Sentinel, Chipping Norton, NSW: Surrey Beatty & Sons, ISBN 0949324981 (2006)

Grierson, John: Sir Hubert Wilkins - Enigma of Exploration. London: Robert Hale, (1960)

Hall, Lincoln: Douglas Mawson - The Life of an Explorer. French's Forest, NSW: New Holland, ISBN 1864366702 (2000)

Heacox, Kim: Shackleton – The Antarctic Challenge, Washington, DC: National Geographic, ISBN 0792275365, (1999)

Huntford, Roland: Shackleton, London: Hodder & Stoughton, ISBN 0340250070, (1985)

Huntford, Roland, Sumners, Julie and Rowley, David (Compilers):The Shackleton Voyages - A Pictorial Anthology of the Polar Explorer and Edwardian Hero, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, ISBN 0297843168, (2002)

Hurley, Frank: Argonauts of the South, New York: G.P. Putnams & Sons, 1925.

Hurley, Frank: Shackleton’s Argonauts - a Saga of the Antarctic Ice-packs. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, (1948)

Hurley, Frank: South with Endurance Shackleton’s Antarctic Expedition 1914-1917. The Photographs of Frank Hurley, Melbourne: Viking – Penguin Books Australia Ltd, ISBN 0670912093, (2001)

Hussey, Leonard: South with Shackleton, London: Sampson Low, (1949)

Jacka, Fred and Jacka, Eleanor (ed.): Mawson's Antarctic Diaries, Sydney: Allen and Unwin, ISBN 0043202098, (1988)

Langsford, Anne and Pharaoh, Mark: In the Footsteps of Sir Douglas Mawson. Adelaide: South Australia Museum & The University of Adelaide, ISBN 1876416181, (2000)

Lansing, Alfred: Endurance, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, ISBN 029764680x, (2000)

Laserson, Charles F. : South with Mawson. Sydney: The Australasian Publishing Company, (1947)

Legg, Frank and Hurley, Toni: Once More on My Adventure - The Life of Frank Hurley. Sydney: Ure Smith, (1966)

Locke, Stephen, George Marston: Shackleton’s Antarctic Artist, Winchester, Hampshire, UK: Hampshire County Council, ISBN 1859753574, (2000)

McGregor, Alasdair: Mawson's Huts - An Antarctic Expedition Journal, Sydney: Hale and Iremonger, ISBN 0868066532, (1998)

MacGregor, Alasdair: Frank Hurley - A Photographers Life. Camberwell, Victoria: Viking, Penguin Group, ISBN 0670888958, (2004)

Martin, Stephen (curator):Shifting Ground – Photographs by Frank Hurley 1911-18, Sydney: State Library of NSW, ISBN 0731371135, (2001)

Mawer, Granville Allen: South by Northwest - The Magnetic Crusade and the Contest for Antarctica, Kent Town, South Australia: Wakefield Press, ISBN 1862546509, (2006)

Mawson, Douglas: The Home of the Blizzard - Being the Story of the Australasian Antarctic Expedition, 1911-1914. London: Hodder and Stoughton, (1930)

Mill, Hugh Robert: The Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton, London: William Heinemann Ltd, (1933)

Millar, David P.: From Snowdrift to Shellfire - Capt. James Francis (Frank) Hurley 1885-1962, Sydney: David Ell Press, ISBN 0908197594, (1984)

Morrell, Margot and Capparell, Stephanie: Shackleton’s Way – Leadership Lessons from the Great Antarctic Explorer, London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing, ISBN 1857882113, (2001)

Mortimer, Gavin: Shackleton and the Antarctic Explorers - The Men who Battled to reach the South Pole, Carlton, ISBN 1858687365, (1999)

Murphy, Shane (ed.): Shackleton’s Photographer - Photographs of Scenes and Diary of Incidents in Connection with Happenings to the Weddell Sea Party 1914-1917, Scottsdale, Arizona: Shane Murphy, ISBN 0970314825, CD-ROM (2001)

Murphy, Shane (ed.): List of Known Images - Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition 12 October - 26 April 1917, Scottsdale, Arizona: Shane Murphy, ISBN 097031485x, CD-ROM (2003)

Nasht, Simon: The Last Explorer - Hubert Wilkins Australia's Unknown Hero, Hodder, ISBN 0733618316, (2005)

Piggott, Jan (ed.): Shackleton: The Antarctic and Endurance, London: The Governers of Dulwich College, ISBN 0953949303, (2000)

Plimpton, George: Ernest Shackleton, London: DK Publishing, ISBN 0789493152, (2003)

Price, A. Grenfell: The Winning of Australian Antarctica - Mawson's BANZARE Voyages 1929-31, based on the Mawson Papers. Sydney: Angus and Robertson, (1962)

Rajala, Elizabeth Anna Bakewell (ed.): The American on the Endurance: Ice, Seas and Terra Firma Adventures of William L. Bakewell, Dukes Hall Publishing, ISBN 0974913405, (2003)

Ralling, Christopher: Shackleton - His Antarctic writings, London: BBC, ISBN 0563200847, (1983)

Rossiter, Heather: Lady Spy, Gentleman Explorer: The Life of Herbert Dyce Murphy, Sydney: Random House, ISBN 1740510240, (2001)

Savours, Ann: The Voyages of the Discovery - The Illustrated History of Scott's Ship, London: Chatham Publishing, ISBN 186176149x, (2001)

Schmidmaier, Dagmar: Shifting Ground – Photographs by Frank Hurley 1911-18, Sydney: State Library of NSW, ISBN 0731371135, (2001)

Scholes, Arthur:Seventh Continent: Saga of Australasian Exploration in Antarctica, 1895-1950, London: George Allen & Unwin, (1953)

Shackleton, Ernest H. (edited by Peter King): South The Story of Shackleton’s Last Expedition 1914-17, London: Pimlico, ISBN 0712664122, (1999)

Shackleton, Jonathan and MacKenna, John: Shackleton - An Irishman in Antarctica, Dublin: Lilliput Press, ISBN 184351009x, (2002)

Smith, Michael: An Unsung Hero – Tom Crean – Antarctic Survivor, London: Headline Book Publishing, ISBN 0747253579x, (2000)

Thomas, Lowell: Sir Hubert Wilkins - His World of Adventure. Melbourne: Readers Book Club, (1963)

Thomson, John: Shackleton’s Captain – A biography of Frank Worsley, Sydney: Allen & Unwin, ISBN 1865082457, (1999)

Thomson, John: Elephant Island and Beyond - The Life and Diaries of Thomas Orde Lees, Huntingdon, UK: Bluntisham Books, ISBN 1852970766, (2003)

Worsley, Frank A.: Endurance: An Epic of Polar Adventure, London: Philip Allan, (1931)

Worsley, Frank A.: Shackleton’s Boat Journey, London: Folio Society, (1974)

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